1. Marshall S, Hamstra-Wright K, Dick R, Grove K, Agel J. Descriptive epidemiology of collegiate women's softball injuries: National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance System, 1988-1989 through 2003-2004. J Athl Train 2007;42:286-94.
  2. Price R, Hawkins R, Hulse MH, A. The Football Association medical research programme: an audit of injuries in academy youth football. Br J Sports Med 2004;38:466-71.
  3. Shankar P, Fields S, Collins C, Dick R, Comstock R. Epidemiology of high school and collegiate football injuries in the United States, 2005-2006. Am J Sports Med 2007;35:1295-303.
  4. Marshall S, Covassin T, Dick R, Nassar L, Agel J. Descriptive epidemiology of collegiate women's gymnastics injuries: National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance System, 1988-1989 through 2003-2004. J Athl Train 2007;42:234-40.
  5. Caine D, Nassar L. Gymnastics injuries. Med Sport Sci 2005;48:18-58.
  6. Woods C, Hawkins R, Maltby S, Hulse M, Thomas A, Hodson A. The Football Association Medical Research Programme: an audit of injuries in professional football--analysis of hamstring injuries. Br J Sports Med 2004;38:36-41.
  7. Orchard J, Marsden J, Lord S, Garlick D. Preseason hamstring muscle weakness associated with hamstring muscle injury in Australian footballers. Am J Sports Med 1997;25:81-5.
  8. Garrett W. Muscle strain injuries. Am J Sports Med 1996;24 S2-S8.
  9. Feeley B, Kennelly S, Barnes R, et al. Epidemiology of National Football League training camp injuries from 1998 to 2007. Am J Sports Med 2008;36:1597-603.
  10. Bennell K, Crossley K. Musculoskeletal injuries in track and field: incidence, distribution and risk factors. Aust J Sci Med Sport 1996;28:69-75.
  11. Hawkins R, Hulse M, Wilkinson C, Hodson A, Gibson M. The association football medical research programme: an audit of injuries in professional football. Br J Sports Med 2001;35:43-7.
  12. Orchard J, Seward H. Epidemiology of injuries in the Australian Football League, seasons 1997-2000. Br J Sports Med 2002;36:39-44.
  13. Brooks J, Fuller C, Kemp S, Reddin D. Incidence, risk, and prevention of hamstring muscle injuries in professional rugby union. Am J Sports Med 2006;34:1297-306.
  14. Engebretsen A, Myklebust G, Holme I, Engebretsen L, Bahr R. Intrinsic risk factors for hamstring injuries among male soccer players: a prospective cohort study. Am J Sports Med 2010;38:1147-53.
  15. Gabbe B, Bennell K, Finch C, Wajswelner H, Orchard J. Predictors of hamstring injury at the elite level of Australian football. Scand J Med Sci Sports 2006;16:7-13.
  16. Connell D, Schneider-Kolsky M, Hoving J, et al. Longitudinal study comparing sonographic and MRI assessments of acute and healing hamstring injuries. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2004;183:975-84.
  17. Slavotinek J, Verrall G, Fon G. Hamstring injury in athletes: using MR imaging measurements to compare extent of muscle injury with amount of time lost from competition. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2002;179:1621-8.
  18. Silder A, Heiderscheit B, Thelen D, Enright T, Tuite M. MR observations of long-term musculotendon remodeling following a hamstring strain injury. Skeletal Radiol 2008;37:1101-9.
  19. Lempainen L, Sarimo J, Mattila K, Vaittinen S, Orava S. Proximal hamstring tendinopathy: results of surgical management and histopathologic findings. Am J Sports Med 2009;37:727-34.
  20. Puranen J, Orava S. The hamstring syndrome--a new gluteal sciatica. Ann Chir Gynaecol 1991;80:212-4.
  21. Fredericson M, Moore W, Guillet M, Beaulieu C. High Hamstring Tendinopathy in Runners: Meeting the Challenges of Diagnosis, Treatment, and Rehabiliation. Phys Sports Med 2005;33:32-43.
  22. Heiderscheit B, Sherry M, Silder A, Chumanov E, Thelen D. Hamstring strain injuries: recommendations for diagnosis, rehabilitation, and injury prevention. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2010;40:67-81.
  23. Askling C, Tengvar M, Tarassova O, Thorstensson A. Acute hamstring injuries in Swedish elite sprinters and jumpers: a prospective randomised controlled clinical trial comparing two rehabilitation protocols. Br J Sports Med 2014;48:532-9.
  24. Askling C, Saartok T, Thorstensson A. Type of acute hamstring strain affects flexibility, strength, and time to return to pre-injury level. Br J Sports Med 2006;40:40-4.
  25. Petersen J, Thorborg K, Nielsen M, Budtz-Jørgensen E, Hölmich P. Preventive effect of eccentric training on acute hamstring injuries in men's soccer: a cluster-randomized controlled trial. Am J Sports Med 2011;39:2296-303.
  26. Arnason A, Andersen T, Holme I, Engebretsen L, Bahr R. Prevention of hamstring strains in elite soccer: an intervention study. Scand J Med Sci Sports 2008;18:40-8.
  27. Linklater J, Hamilton B, Carmichael J, Orchard J, Wood D. Hamstring injuries: Anatomy, Imaging, and Intervention. Semin Musculoskelt Radiol 2010;14:131-61.
  28. Thelen D, Chumanov E, Sherry M, Heiderscheit B. Neuromusculoskeletal models provide insights into the mechanisms and rehabilitation of hamstring strains. Exerc Sport Sci Rev 2006;34:135-41.
  29. Chumanov E, Heiderscheit B, Thelen D. The effect of speed and influence of individual muscles on hamstring mechanics during the swing phase of sprinting. J Biomech 2007;40:3555-62.
  30. Thelen D, Chumanov E, Best T, Swanson S, Heiderscheit B. Simulation of biceps femoris musculotendon mechanics during the swing phase of sprinting. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2005;37:1931-8.
  31. Ali K, Leland J. Hamstring strains and tears in the athlete. Clin Sports Med 2012;31:263-72.32. Orchard J. Biomechanics of muscle strain injury. N Z J Sports Med 2002;30:92-8.
  32. Orchard J. Biomechanics of muscle strain injury. N Z J Sports Med 2002;30:92-8.
  33. Gabbe B, Finch C, Bennell K, Waj-swelner H. Risk factors for hamstring injuries in community level Australian football. Br J Sports Med 2005;39:106-10.
  34. Fields K, Bloom O, Priebe D, Foreman B. Basic biomechanics of the lower extremity. Prim Care 2005;32:245-51.
  35. Clanton T, Coupe K. Hamstring strains in athletes: diagnosis and treatment. J Am Acad Orthop Surg 1998;6:237-48.
  36. Zissen M, Wallace G, Stevens K, Fredericson M, Beaulieu C. High hamstring tendinopathy: MRI and ultrasound imaging and therapeutic efficacy of percutaneous corticosteroid injection. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2010;195:993-8.
  37. Cacchio A, Borra F, Severini G, et al. Reliability and validity of three pain provocation tests used for the diagnosis of chronic proximal hamstring tendinopathy. Br J Sports Med 2012;46:883-7.
  38. Cohen S, Bradley J. Acute proximal hamstring rupture. J Am Acad Orthop Surg 2007;15:350-5.
  39. Folsom G, Larson C. Surgical treatment of acute versus chronic complete proximal hamstring ruptures: results of a new allograft technique for chronic reconstructions. Am J Sports Med 2008;36:104-9.
  40. Colosimo A, Wyatt H, Frank K, Mangine R. Hamstring Avulsion Injuries. Oper Tech Sports Med 2005;13:80-8.
  41. Domb B, Linder D, Sharp K, Sadik A, Gerhardt M. Endoscopic repair of proximal hamstring avulsion. Arthrosc Tech 2013;2:e35-9.
  42. Harris J, Griesser M, Best T, Ellis T. Treatment of Proximal Hamstring Rupture- A Systemic Review. Int J Sports Med 2011;32:490-5.
  43. Sarimo J, Lempainen L, Mattila K, Orava S. Complete proximal hamstring avulsions: a series of 41 patients with operative treatment. Am J Sports Med 2008;36:1110-5.
  44. Mason D, Dickens V, Vail A. Rehabilitation for hamstring injuries. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2012;12:CD004575.
  45. Mariani C, Caldera F, Kim W. Ultrasound versus magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of an acute hamstring tear. PM R 2012;4:154-5.
  46. Rettig A, Meyers S, Kersey P, Ballard G, Oneacre K, Hunker P. Categorization of Hamstring Strain Injuries by MRI and PLaying Time Lost in Professional Football Players. NATA 2008:29-32.
  47. Lin J, Jacobson J, Fessell D, Weadock W, Hayes C. An illustrated tutorial of musculoskeletal sonography: part 4, musculoskeletal masses, sonographically guided interventions, and miscellaneous topics. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2000;175:1711-9.
  48. Smith J, Finnoff J. Diagnostic and interventional musculoskeletal ultrasound: part 1. Fundamentals. PM R 2009;1:64-75.
  49. Smith J, Finnoff J. Diagnostic and interventional musculoskeletal ultrasound: part 2. Clinical applications. PM R 2009;1:162-77.
  50. Schneider-Kolsky M, Hoving J, Warren P, Connell D. A comparison between clinical assessment and magnetic resonance imaging of acute hamstring injuries. Am J Sports Med 2006;34:1008-15.
  51. Askling C, Tengvar M, Saartok T, Thorstensson A. Acute first-time hamstring strains during slow-speed stretching: clinical, magnetic resonance imaging, and recovery characteristics. Am J Sports Med 2007;35:1716-24.
  52. Askling C, Tengvar M, Saartok T, Thorstensson A. Proximal hamstring strains of stretching type in different sports: injury situations, clinical and magnetic resonance imaging characteristics, and return to sport. Am J Sports Med 2008;36:1799-804.
  53. Clark B, Jaffe D, Henn R, Lovering R. Evaluation and imaging of an untreated grade III hamstring tear: a case report. Clin Orthop Relat Res 2011;469:3248-52.
  54. Sharma P, Muaffulli N. Tendon Injury and Tendinopathy: Healing and Repair. JBJS 2005;87:187-202.