In emergency departments, the leading causes of concussions are falls, motor vehicle trauma, assaults, and sports.
Sport, position, and style of play. In sports-related concussions, contact sports have the highest rate of concussions. Below is a list of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) sports and the number of concussions reported per every 1,000 athletes.1
- Football 2.9
- Lacrosse 2.5
- Women’s Ice Hockey 2.1
- Men’s Ice Hockey 2.1
- Women’s Soccer 2.0
- Men’s Wrestling 1.6
- Men’s Soccer 1.3
- Women’s Lacrosse 1.2
- Women’s Field Hockey 1.1
- Women’s Basketball 1.0
- Men’s Basketball 0.6
- Women’s Softball 0.4
- Women’s Volleyball 0.2
- Men’s Baseball 0.2
An athlete’s position and style of play also affect his or her risk of concussion. For example, a study of National Football League (NFL) data2 found that quarterbacks are the most likely players to suffer concussions, and that the overall risk of concussion was highest during kickoff plays. High school football play differs, and evidence shows that the defensive players who are at greatest risk of concussion are linebackers, while the offensive players who are at greatest risk are running backs.3
Previous concussion. People who have suffered a concussion(s) in the past are more likely to sustain another concussion in the future.
Gender. Female athletes report more concussions and more severe symptoms than their male counterparts playing the same sport.8,9 For example, female soccer players are more likely to report concussions than male soccer players. It is not yet clear if this is a difference in reporting or an actual difference in injury risk.
Learning and mood disorders. Concussions in people with learning disorder or mood disorders may have a more complicated recovery.10
Migraines. Some experts suspect that people who suffer migraines are more likely suffer a concussion and/or may have a longer concussion recovery.11
Risky behavior. People engaging in risky behavior, such as drinking and driving, have an increased risk for concussion.
Precautions such as wearing helmets (e.g. bike and football helmets) or car safety belts can reduce the risk of concussion but will not eliminate it.